Written in front
“1000 years of culture, Beijing, 3000 years of culture, Shanxi, 5,000 years of culture, Shanxi”, the west of the Taihang, the land of the Three Jins to the east of the Yellow River, has been called “Buli River” since ancient times, and its long history is in this yellow There are too many traces left on the land. Taihang Mountains and Waters, the Yellow River Civilization, and the Great Wall Ancient Rhyme have too many remains waiting for us to explore.
The second time I arrived in Shanxi, I took a heavy footstep, walked on this thick land, walked through Jinci, walked past Niangziguan, walked through Wutai Mountain, walked through Yingxian Wooden Pagoda, walked through Hengshan Hanging Temple, and finally arrived in Datong. Yungang Grottoes. Explore the civilization of Shanxi in this classic route.
Eating in Shanxi
There are many kinds of food in Shanxi. This time, I will explore the trip to Shanxi. It is also a trip to Shanxi. I will go all the way to eat and feel the mountains with my tongue. “The world’s noodles are in China, and Chinese pasta is in Shanxi.” In Shanxi, pasta is a must. However, when I came to Shanxi, I discovered that noodles are much more than just a staple food. Cold dishes, hot dishes, soups, fried, fried, cooked, and fried, can be seen everywhere. In this trip, I ate a lot of faces, but the most impressive thing was to learn about the noodle soup culture in Shanxi, marvel at the noodles in Shanxi, taste the authentic cuisine of Shanxi, and enjoy the folk performances of Shaanxi at the same time.
In addition to pasta, the most distinctive thing is the mind. The mind is a well-known early point in Taiyuan City. It has the saying that “the name is Chinese, the first to push the mind”. It was invented by the famous literati in the late Ming and early Qing dynasties, and the medical scientist Fu Shan invented it. It is made of Huang Qi, noodles, lotus, mutton, and long yam. , yellow wine, distiller’s grains, and sheep’s tail oil are prepared. The taste of the local people’s super love, as a tourist, we may not be able to adapt, but still have the need to taste.
Stay in Shanxi
As a major tourist province, Shanxi has a sound infrastructure, and there may not be many luxury hotels, but hotels around the world have more options and higher cost performance. The Grand Jun Hotel in Taiyuan is not the most luxurious hotel in Taiyuan, but it is close to Taiyuan Airport and South Railway Station. It is not far from Shanxi Jinci. It has convenient transportation, complete facilities and spacious rooms. It is a good trip. select.
Line in Shanxi
Shanxi Province is located in the central part of China, adjacent to Beijing, Tianjin, Zhengzhou, Luoyang, Xi’an, Shijiazhuang and other cities, with convenient land and air transportation, and a three-dimensional transportation network covering railways, highways and aviation. There are many tourist attractions in Shanxi, and after arriving in Shanxi, it is recommended to drive by car or chartered. You can freely choose the route to experience the different styles of Shanxi.
Shanxi Jinci, the earliest extant royal garden in China
“The victory of the Three Jins, Jinyang is the most; and the victory of Jinyang is all in Jinci.” The second time I came to Shanxi, I finally walked into the earliest existing imperial garden in China, the legendary Jinci, in ancient times, Between statues, plaques, inscriptions, cypresses, and springs, through the millennium.
Jinci, the first name of Tang Shuzhen, was built to commemorate the founding of the founding fathers of the Jin Dynasty. After the uncle’s son’s uncle was succeeded, because of the flood of Jinshui in the territory, the country was changed from “Tang” to “Jin”, and the temple was renamed “Jin Wang”, later known as “Jin Jin”. Later, in the passage of the years, in the dynasty’s change, Jinci experienced many re-constructions and expansions, constantly changing the appearance.
During the Northern and Southern Dynasties, Wenxuan Emperor Gaoyang overthrew the Eastern Wei Dynasty to establish the Northern Qi Dynasty, and set Jinyang as a capital, “big upstairs view, wearing a pond” and expanding Jinci. During the reign of Emperor Huang (581-600), a relic tower was built in the southwest of the reclamation area. In the 20th year of Tang Zhenguan (646 years), Li Shimin of Taizong went to Jinci, and wrote the inscription “The Order of Jinci and the Preface”. He described the Jinyu Jiuzhong and the “Yulou Millennium” as the Jinci, and once again expanded.
Song Taizong Zhao Guangyi was in the Taiping Xingguo Period (AD 976-983), and he was also in the Jinci Dynasties. Song Renzong Zhao Yu Yu Tiansheng (1023 – 1032), chasing Tang Shuzhen as the king of the East, and built a large-scale temple of the Virgin Mary for the mother of Tang Shuzhen. Since then, the iron man has been cast, and the temple, the bell tower, the drum tower and the water mirror station have been built. The central axis building with the main body of the Virgin is the second largest, and the pattern of today is gradually formed.
▼Jinyi landscape, witness time
Jinci is located in the hanging hills of southwestern Taiyuan, carrying the hanging mountains, facing Jinshui, and relying on the mountains to add strength. According to the Northern Wei dynasty Yuan “Shui Jing Zhu”, “the mountains of the hangs, the waters of Jinshui…”, the Xishan Mountain, the waters of the mountains, the Tang Shuzhen, the pavilion on the water side, and the flying beams on the water. The more ancient landscapes bear witness to the circulation of Jinci in time.
The mountain of Jinci is awkward. “Spring is full of yellow flowers, the path is fragrant and far away; the autumn is quiet and the grass is high, and the sky is high and clear.” It is the natural barrier of Jinci. The water of Jinci is flowing, and the “Jin Shui flowing water like Jasper” adds a bit of aura and movement to the solemn Jinci. The tree of Jinci is vigorous, “Litchi crosses the cloud and is alone,” and uses the old body to write the vicissitudes of the years.
The water of Jinci is very far. “The gods and uncles of the temple, the land wins the Jiaquan. One source is quiet, a few steps are neglected”, the Jiaquan in Fan Zhongyan’s poems is the source of Jinshui, Jinshao difficult old, fish marsh, Shanli Sanquan. Difficult to call the South Sea Eye, the language of the “Book of Songs” “in the sip of wine, both drink the wine, Yongxi is difficult to old”, for the “Jinyang first spring”; fish marsh, because “the round is the pool, the party is the marsh And because of its many fish, hence the name”; Shanli, the language of “Laozi” “on the goodness of water, water and good things without fighting.” When the fish marsh and the good profit are flowing, the old spring is flowing out, and it is always in the air. The guardian of the difficult old spring is the difficult old spring of the Northern Song Dynasty. The “difficult old” plaque hanging on the pavilion is the famous scholar of Fushan in the Qing Dynasty. It is one of the three famous names of Jinci.
Between the mountains and rivers, ancient trees still exist. “The earth and the grass have the rest, the sorrowful cypress contains the smog”, and the cypress in Ouyang Xiu’s poems is still vigorous, leaning on the left side of the Temple of the Virgin, covering the temples and guarding the Jinci. Cooper was said to have been planted in the Western Zhou Dynasty, and together with the Difficult Spring and the Song Gong Maid, it was called the “Three Jins”. Other ancient trees outside Zhou Bai have also stood for thousands of years, and they are full of gloom, and they are old in time with Jinci.
The winding mountains, the ancient springs, and the vigorous trees have been in the Jinci for thousands of years, and together they have written the swan songs of Jinci. Since the beginning of the Northern Qi Dynasty, the landscape of Jinci has attracted many scribes. “The love of mountains and rivers, the frequent visits to the Jin dynasty” is the result of the Northern Qi Datun ; ; ;; “When the Tang Dynasty, Ya loves the landscape, the longest visitor” Li Bai came; Ouyang Xiu came… Many countless literati poets are famous. During the period between them, poetry, prose, and couplets are left. The poems and literary essays are praised by the Jin Dynasty and the inscriptions.
“巍巍冠盖日日横,景其美兮,景其淑兮,景其灵兮, Jinyang blends unparalleled; when mixed with the original spring, clear and sturdy, clear and straight, clear and ambiguous, mountain right The first district of the fame.” Hanging on the gate of Jinci, the couplet made by Liu Dapeng of Crouching Mountain is the most authentic portrayal of Jinci Mountain.
▼Jinyi Architecture, through ancient and modern
However, the beauty of Jinci is beyond the limits of nature. The buildings and sculptures of those thousands of years ago, through ancient and modern times, carry the meaning beyond nature. In the article “Jin Ying”, the essay everyone Liang Heng detailed the beauty of the landscape and the beauty of architecture. Fortunately, Liang Lao has a number of faces, and Liang Lao gave a book. The article in the book elaborates on the beauty discovered and expressed by Liang Lao when he wrote “Jin Jin”. The Jinci in his eyes is a kind of both natural and social. And the beauty of art.
The beauty of this social art lies in the architecture, statues, plaques, and inscriptions of Jinci, which lie in the preservation of the ancients. Hundreds of ancient buildings in Jinci have been investigated from the Northern Qi Dynasty to the Ming and Qing Dynasties. It has been difficult to count the times for thousands of years. In just half a day, I couldn’t understand them one by one. I just strolled in Jinci and stayed in front of the ancient building “Three Musts” to touch the culture and art that was smashed thousands of years ago.
The Temple of the Virgin, one of the three ancient buildings of Jinci, was built in the Tiansheng Period of the Northern Song Dynasty. It is the main hall of Jinci and the oldest surviving building in Jinci. The Temple of the Virgin is 19 meters high and rests on the top of the mountain. It is seven wide and six deep. The yellow and green glazed tiles are cut and carved, surrounded by carved swan beasts.On the porch, the wooden carved plate on the front pillar of the temple is eight. The interior of the temple uses a reduced column method to expand the space. It is a large Song Dynasty building in China.
In the Temple of the Madonna, the image of the Madonna and the maid and the female official in the Song Dynasty is a treasure in the existing clay sculptures of the Song Dynasty in China. Except for the small images on both sides of the Madonna, it was added to the Song Dynasty. The main statue of the Virgin is sitting in the wooden shrine, and the rest of the maids are on the outer sides of the coffin, the maiden robes and robes, the dignified demeanor, the maids in their hands, or the food and drink, or the grooming, etc., with distinct personality. The statue is vivid and natural, but unfortunately, for better protection, the fence has been erected and can only be seen from outside the temple.
The third of the three ancient Jin dynasty buildings is the wood carving dragon on the front pillar of the Temple of the Virgin. This is the earliest existing Panlong carving column in China. It was carved in the second year of Song Yuanyou (1087). Each of the eight wooden dragons holds a column, glaring and clawed, and lifelike.
The fish marsh fly beam between the Temple of the Virgin and the Temple of the Feast, built in the Song Dynasty, is the third of the three ancient Jinci. The fish marsh fly beam is placed on the fish marsh. The ancients have the saying that “the bridge is virtual, if it is flying,” “flying beam stone, and the mausoleum crosses the waterway”, hence the name Feiliang. The fish marsh fly beam is a cross-shaped bridge. The east and west bridges are wide, connecting the temple and the Notre Dame. The north and south bridges are inclined downwards. There are 34 small octagonal stone pillars in the middle of the marsh. This kind of strange cross-shaped bridge, architect Mr. Liang Sicheng once praised, “This type of stone pillar bridge, occasionally seen in ancient paintings, the real thing is only an isolated case, it is valuable.”
There are many plaques in Jinci, and there is a deep connotation behind each plaque, or a touching story. I have not been able to explore them one by one. I only focused on understanding the “water mirror”, “to Vietnam” and “difficult old”. Three scholars in Jinci. The “water mirror table” is being closed for maintenance and cannot be seen. “Difficult old” hangs in the difficult old pavilion, guarding the difficult old spring. “Yueyue” is mentioned by Gao Yingyuan of Taiyuan County, and the “Book of Songs” is spoken. “On the other day, the horse is walking in the temple.”
Jinci is too long, too thick, half-day time, swallowing jujube, useThe lens records the reality of Jinci, but can’t use words to describe the Jinci in the heart. Fortunately, “the victory of the pavilion and the stone will be treated by the celebrity, and the poetry will be honoured.” And I was able to know from the predecessors’ poetry and prose, a man who has flesh and blood and a soul.
Niangziguan, the ninth gate of the Great Wall
I can’t say that the Great Wall is not a hero, have you ever been to the Niangziguan? Niangziguan is located in the territory of Pingding, Shanxi. This Xiongguan Fort was built in the late Tang and early Tang dynasties. It was guarded by the Taihang Mountain. It was once the throat of Jinci, and it has the reputation of the ninth gate of the Great Wall. It is a battleground for the dynasties.
The Niangzi Guanxiang is the place where the Princess of Pingyang gathers to defend the enemy. Princess Tang Yang, the third daughter of Tang Gaozu Li Yuan, married the Guanzhong Xia Shichao. In 617 AD, Li Yuan planned to attack the army in Taiyuan and sent a person to call Chai Shao. Chai Shao was eager to go, but he was guilty. If he went with the princess, he would expose the target; leave the princess and fear that she would be alone. What could be wrong. In order to avoid the worry of Chai Shao, the princess urged Chai Shao. After the husband left, she immediately became the seller’s assets, came to the countryside, called on the peasants to unite against the Sui Dynasty’s rule, the villagers responded, and soon gathered hundreds of people. Soon, she sent someone to say that several insurgents were nearby, forming a united and powerful earthquake. In September of the same year, the princess sent more than 10,000 soldiers and met with Li Shimin. At this time, Chai Shao also brought troops to meet. The princess is a self-reliant shogunate with the banner “Yangzijun”. In order to commemorate Princess Pingyang, the local people called this place where the Princess Pingyang led the uprising as the Niangziguan.
The four characters of “Jingyuping” on the doorway highlight the prehistoric status of Niangziguan. However, today’s Niangziguan, like other Guanzhong Great Walls, has no military function, but carries the heavy history of the Great Wall. Boarding the Niangziguan, watching a sunset on the castle, dreaming of a war.
“The ancient building of the ancient building on the edge of the building, the Qingshan city under the city, the river”, Niangziguan not only has the mountain, but also the flowing water, there are lake waterfalls, people on the water. The Niangzi Guanguan Guancun has many springs, and it has accumulated into a stream, entering the lane along the street, and wearing a home, forming a “small bridge, flowing water, and people” that is rare in the north. People wash and wash vegetables in the running water in front of the house, and every bit of life is related to spring water.
Wutai Mountain, the first of the four famous Buddhist mountains in China
“Golden Wutai, Yinputuo, Tongyimei, Tiejiuhua”, Chinese Buddhism is known as the four famous mountains, Shanxi Wutai Mountain, is the first of the four famous Buddhist mountains, “the earliest mountain, the most quiet, the most spiritual The most famous, so the name is unique.” At the same time, Wutai Mountain and Nepal Lumbini Garden, Indian Luyeyuan, Bodh Gaya, and the corpse of Naga, are one of the five major Buddhist holy places in the world. This time, I came to the “Golden Wutai”, not for pilgrimage, but still, devoutly moving forward.
Wutai Mountain is the dojo of Manjushri. Wutai Mountain is not a mountain, but five mountain peaks. Because the peak is flat and wide, it is named. Wangtai Peak in Dongtai, built Guanhai Temple, dedicated to “Smart Wenshu”; Xitai Moon Peak, built Falei Temple, dedicated to “Lion Manjus”; South Taiwan Jinxiu Peak, built Puji Temple, dedicated to “Wisdom Manjusri”; Yetai Peak in Beitai, built Lingying Temple, dedicated to “No Scale Manjusri”; Zhongtai Cuiyan Peak, built a theater, dedicated to “Confucianism Manjusri”. The devout pilgrims will travel all over the mountain roads of Wutai Mountain, and go to the five stations. They worship the Manjusri Bodhisattvas on the top of the five towers, commonly known as the “Dachaotai”. “. On our trip, we only went to the temple group in Taihuai Town and looked at Wutai at the foot of the mountain.
▼ Buddhist scriptures, the earliest temple
Mount Wutai is the only famous mountain in the four famous mountains that is clearly recorded in the Buddhist scriptures. In the “Hua Yan Jing” translated by the Eastern Jin Dynasty 僧 驮跋 驮跋 驮跋 记载 记载 记载 记载 记载 记载 记载 记载 记载 记载 记载 记载 记载 记载 记载 记载 记载 记载 记载 记载 记载 记载 记载 记载 记载 记载 记载 记载 记载 记载 记载 记载 记载 记载 记载 记载 记载 东北 东北 东北 东北 东北Among them, the Buddhist classic “Wenshu Shili Treasure Tibetan Dharani”, Shizun pointed out precisely, “I am extinct, in the northeast of this southern part of the state, there is a national name Dazhen that, there are mountains in the country The number of 曰 曰 顶 。 。 。 。 。 。 。 。 。 。 。 。 。 。 。 。 。 。 。 。 文 文 文 文 文 文 文 文 文 文 文 文 文 文 文 文 文 文 文 文 文 文 文 文 文 文 文 文 文 文 文.
Wutai Mountain is one of the earliest places in Chinese Buddhist temple architecture. Ten years from the Eastern Han Dynasty Yongping, Tiangao Ye Moteng, Yu Fangfang white horse chanting, came to Luoyang, China, the following year, left Luoyang, came to Qingliangshan, found that this is not only the Manjusri teaching and living place, but also There is a Ashoka Buddha stupa, and the mountain-shaped landform is very similar to the Indian Lingbi Mountain where Sakyamuni Buddha practiced the Dafa. The singer asked the Han Ming Emperor to build a large-scale Lingbi Temple here. Plus the word “Dafu”, this has the predecessor of Xiantong Temple, “Dafu Lingyu Temple”.
Xiantong Temple is the “mountain temple of Wutai Mountain”. Later, the temples were built in the past, and Wutai Mountain became a holy place of Buddhism. During the Northern Wei Dynasty, a large-scale temple group was built. There were more than 200 temples in Wutai Mountain in the Northern Qi Dynasty. At the peak of the Tang Dynasty, there were more than 360 Buddhist temples inside and outside the Wutai. After the “Changchang destroyed the Buddha”, there were 72 in the Song Dynasty. To 104, it reached 112 in the late Qing Dynasty and the early Republic of China.
As the years have changed, there are now 47 surviving temples inside and outside the five stations. Although they are not as good as the heyday, they are still large in scale and should not be underestimated. Standing in Taihuai Town, no matter where you look, you can always see the temple, or live at the foot of the mountain, or hide in the mountains, or on the top of the mountain. I couldn’t get a temple to walk slowly, just stop in front of the Tayuan Temple, the magnificent temple, the exuberant incense, the devout believers, so that my footsteps can be stopped and my soul can be placed.
▼The coexistence of Han and Tibetan, the sect is complete
Mount Wutai is the only mountain in China where both Chinese and Tibetan Buddhism coexist. Han, Tibetan, Mongolian, Manchu, Miao, Miao, and North Korea live together in a mountain. The law, the three sects, the Tiantai sect, the French sect, the Huayan sect, the Shingon sect, The Zen and the Pure Land Emperor are both unique and sacred.
During the Tang Dynasty, Tibet’s Wutai Mountain was circulated as a “human world”. Tubo sent a plan to seek the Wutai Mountain. Legend has it that Songtsan Gambo sent people to build monasteries in Mount Wutai. In the Yuan Dynasty, Kublai Khan’s Eighthba and his disciples were stationed in Wutai Mountain in Xishan and introduced to the Sakya. In the Ming Dynasty, Tsongkhapa’s disciple, Shakya, also lost the Yellow Gru School to Mount Wutai, and the Buddha’s Roof and the Golden Cave became the Gelugpa Temple. In the Qing Dynasty, the emperors of the Qing Dynasty were in the Daxing Huangjiao of Wutai Mountain. They repaired the Bodhisattva roof with the same specifications as the royal architecture. The Mongolian Tibetan Buddhism believers and the princes were inextricably linked. The Tibetan Buddhism flourished.
Today, there are still a large number of Tibetan Buddhist living Buddhas and believers who come to Wutai Mountain every year. In front of the Tayuan Temple, I met a master from Sichuan Sida Buddhist College. From the color to the Wutai Mountain, because of the belief in the heart, the road to pilgrimage has become no longer far away.
As a holy place of Buddhism, Wutai Mountain has been welcoming many high-ranking Dades to visit and promote the Fa. Master Wei Fa Cong of the Northern Wei Dynasty circulated the “Four Laws” at the Five Taipei Temples. The masters of the Qing Dynasty in the Tang Dynasty, the ancestors of the Qing dynasty, were enshrined in the Wutai Mountain, and the masters of the Tiantai Zongzhiyuan in the Wutaishan Dahuayan Temple. Hong Chuan’s “Capricorn”; the great disciple of the Tang dynasty master Xuanji masters the jade manuscript in Wutai Mountain, wrote “Da Prajna”; the Tantric master of one of the three kings of the Kaiyuan in the Tang Dynasty was not empty in the Wutai Mountain Pavilion Temple; the fourth ancestor of the Pure Land of the Tang Dynasty, the master of the law, also advocated the Five Fa Conferences in the Zhulin Temple. In the late Tang Dynasty, Zhaozhou visited the five classes from the Zen Master.
In the past, every year from the beginning of June to the 15th of the lunar calendar, there will be a grand “big vows”, which is known as the June General Assembly. During the years of Tang Linde, Shiziguo (present-day Sri Lanka) Master Shakyamodoro on the Wutai Mountain dynasty Manjusri Bodhisattva; the first year of Yifeng, the North Indian 罽 僧 僧 僧 僧 僧 僧 僧 到 到 到 到 到 五 五 五 五 五 五 五 陀 陀 陀 陀 陀 陀 陀 陀 陀 陀 陀 陀 陀”, engraved in the building. Japanese masters such as Ling Xian, Yuan Ren, and Qi Ran have all attended the Wutai Mountain School and the ceremony.
Not a devout Buddhist, after entering Wutai Mountain, he did not want to continue moving forward. He only wanted to smell the incense of the temple and walked on the mountain road to climb the top five. So when I was riding the car and over the mountain peaks, I kept looking back, looking back at the temples in the mountains, looking back at the gullies in the mountains, and looking back at the five.
Yingxian Wooden Pagoda, China’s first wooden tower
I finally came to Yingxian Muta, an architectural miracle that once led the architect Liang Sicheng to “snap out for a long time”, the world’s oldest surviving wooden structure. There is only a shallow understanding of the ancient building, and when it corresponds to the county wooden tower, the heart has a pilgrimage-like solemnity.
It is inclined with the Italian pizzaTower, Paris Eiffel Tower and called “the world’s three big towers”; it was awarded the Guinness World Record for the tallest wooden tower in 2016, and since 2017, Austria, Norway and other places have begun to build higher wooden structures, using modern technology. Break the record of Yingxian wooden tower. However, it is not these tall labels that really come into my heart. These world-famous glory is just the tower itself that has stood for nearly 1,000 years.
Yingxian Muta is located in the Buddha Temple in Ying County, Cangzhou City, Shanxi Province. The name is Sakyamah, which is just a common name for the “Ying County Wooden Pagoda”. Yingxian Muta was built in the second year of Liaoqingning (1056), and Jin Mingchang was completed in six years (1195). The craftsman 1000 years ago, it took 140 years to use a 3,000-ton wooden component and built a wooden tower equivalent to a 20-story modern high-rise building without a nail.
▼The millennium, the wind and rain will not fall
Pure wooden structures, either due to natural disasters or man-made disasters, can easily disappear in the millennium. Yingxian wooden tower, but the earthquake does not fall, the war is not destroyed, the lightning does not burn, in the millennium time, after suffering, still standing, standing in the miracle of architectural history.
In April of the 9th year of Yuanda De, a 6.5-magnitude earthquake occurred in Datong, 80 kilometers away from the wooden tower. During the Yuanshun Emperor, the Yingzhou earthquake, the towers and the towers collapsed, and the wooden tower did not move; during the Ming Dynasty, Shanxi In the area around Lingqiu, there was a strong earthquake of magnitude 9. The house collapsed, and the wooden towers 120 kilometers away were not damaged. In recent times, several major earthquakes in Xingtai, Tangshan and Datong were affected by Yingxian County. However, after the strong earthquake, the wooden tower remains.
According to the “Ying County Muta History”, in 1926, Feng Yuxiang’s army and Yan Xishan’s army fought here. In this war, the wooden tower has shot more than 200 rounds and suffered great trauma. When the county was liberated in 1948, the Kuomintang army of the defending city set up a machine gun position with the wooden tower as the commanding height. The wooden tower was clicked by 12 guns. The magic is that the shells passed through the tower and did not explode in the tower.
Thousands of years ago, the great craftsmen used the exquisite craftsmanship to write the legend of the Yingxian wooden tower with a piece of wood. In the past millennium, Yingxian Muta has experienced more than 40 earthquakes, more than 200 shots and shells, numerous lightning strikes, numerous winds and rains, but like God help, Enron is like yesterday.
▼All wood world, fighting big set
The reason why the county wooden tower can stand for thousands of years and wind and rain is not because of who put it in the protection circle, but because of the interaction between the rigid and soft structure of the wooden tower structure and the arch.The appearance of the wooden tower is five layers, which is actually nine layers. There is a dark layer between each two layers. From the outside, it is a flat arch structure with strong decoration. From the inside, it is a solid structural layer. These dark layers are constructed in large numbers using diagonal braces to ensure structural rigidity. The closed wooden frame consisting of the stigma acts as a ring beam. The structural system of the wooden tower is a rigid octagonal sleeve, in which the bucket arch plays a key stabilizing role.
The Ying County wooden tower uses a total of 54 kinds of hoppers and 480 flowers. It is the most ancient building in China and can be called the “Dou Gong” museum. The brawl is made up of a number of small wooden blocks that can be connected to the top, connected to the columns, beams, rafts, or cantilevered eaves. When the wind and earthquake come, the bucket is like a loose and springable spring that absorbs kinetic energy and protects the main structure from damage.
In the whole world of the whole wood, it is shocked by the ingenuity of the ancient craftsmen, and the skill is exquisite. I also understand why Liang Sicheng, who first saw the wooden tower in Yingxian, described the wooden tower in the letter to Lin Huiyin. Today, I officially went to see the Buddha Temple Tower, absolutely overwhelming, so good that it is so amazing that I can’t breathe a sigh of relief for a long time. This tower is really a unique and great work. I don’t see the tower, I don’t know the extent of the possibility of wood structure. I admire it very much, admire the era of the tower and the unknown architects and unknown craftsmen of that era.”
▼木塔匾额, calligraphy grand view
In order to better protect the wooden tower, the interior of the wooden tower has been closed. As a tourist, it is impossible to walk into the wooden tower step by step. The first-level boarding of the wooden tower can not see the Buddha statues and murals of the Liao Dynasty inside the wooden tower. A pity, for the wooden tower, we would rather keep this regret. The plaque hanging above the wooden tower is something we can look up and can see. There are a total of 48 plaques on the tower, which are suspended in various parts of the tower. These plaques are mentioned by the emperors, literati, and Buddhist figures who came to observe and worship in the past. No matter the exquisiteness of calligraphy or the eternal meaning of the text, it is superior.
Among these plaques, there are Buddha powers and wonders, praises the wooden towers, and promoted the Dili; there are praises of the towering majestic and exquisite architectural art; there are personal feelings of the wooden tower calligraphy. Among these plaques, there is no shortage of calligraphy, which has made the name of the “Tower of Calligraphy” of Yingxian Muta.
The third layer of the tower is the oldest and most precious piece of the wooden tower. It is written by the King of the Jin Dynasty, rich and full, and is the best in the body. It has been more than 800 years old. Under the five floors of the Yingxian wooden pagoda, the “Junji Shengong” hangs. This is the title of Zhu Xi in the four years of Yongle (1406) in the Northern Expedition, the idea is cold and high, and the gesture is proud.
Hanging Temple, one of the top ten most dangerous buildings in the world
In 2010, Time magazine published the world’s top ten most dangerous buildings, and Hengshan Hanging Temple was on the list. In fact, the Hanging Temple is also a peculiar place worthy of further study in the hearts of Chinese people. It occupies a small area and hangs on a cliff. It is exquisite, but after the poet Li Bai wrote the word “spectacular”, Not enough, but added a little, the traveler Xu Xiake also commented that it is “the world of giants.”
I have heard too many legends about it, I have seen too many photos about it, this time, finally arrived. Walking in a hurry, when I came to the Hanging Temple, it was near sunset. There was no sunshine in the canyon. The mood was excited. Like many years of wish, I finally tasted it. From a distance, a close look, then, step by step into the monastery, I have always been afraid of high, when I walked into the air trail, although there is no abnormality, but also have to scream for this hanging wall.
▼The cliff is dangerous, hanging without falling
Hanging Temple is located at the foot of Hengshan Mountain, on the west rock cliff of Jinlong Gorge. “Face to Hengshan, back to Cuiping; uploading cliffs, descending to deep valleys, rock-based foundations, rock-up houses; structure is thrilling and strange in shape.” The temple was built in the late Northern Wei Dynasty. Later generations were rebuilt and repaired. During the Ming and Qing Dynasties, the architecture reached its peak. Today’s Hanging Temple is mostly the remains of the Ming and Qing Dynasties.
In 398 AD, the Northern Wei Dynasty Tianshi Dao Qianqian left his disciples with a legacy before the death of Xian, and built a temple in the air to reach the “upper hacker and the squadron.” After the death of Tianshi Xian, his disciples carefully selected the site and finally settled on the thousand-foot cliff of Hengshan. After 43 years, construction began. The risk of its location is the original legend of the Hanging Temple.
The location of the Hanging Temple is not purely a pursuit of enthusiasm, but the pursuit of excitement, but another deep meaning. The temple is located in the deep mountain gorge, surrounded by mountains, reducing the time of sun exposure; the narrow mouth of the valley makes the winds outside the plug soften, while ensuring the ventilation and dryness of the temple. Hanging on the cliff, when the mountain floods are flooding, it is free from being washed away. The peak of the cliff is like an umbrella, which protects the temple from rain. The natural barrier makes the Hanging Temple less exposed to the sun during the millennium.
The area of the Hanging Temple is not large, and there are more than 40 large and small temples. The layout of the cliffs is lined up and gradually increased. “Hanging the temple, half a day high, three horsetails hanging in the air.” Horsetail, these are the red uprights that go up the pavilion and down to the rock. A total of 30 of these standing trees were divided into three groups, which were placed under two pavilions and plank roads. At first glance, the Hanging Temple seems to be supported by the three ancestors on the cliff. In fact, the real force point of the Hanging Temple extends below the plank road into the wooden pillars deep in the rock. These wooden columns cleverly use the mechanics principle, and use the rock concealment to make the real center of gravity in the hard rock. The wonder of its architecture makes the Hanging Temple “hang” without being in danger.
The temple building is different from the central axis of the Pingchuan Temple. It is different from the bilateral symmetry. It is also different from the mountain palace. The landscape is gradually increased. It is suitable for local conditions, and it is natural, layered and patchwork. It is rare in temple buildings. free. Walk into the Hanging Temple, climb the ladder, cross the stack, wear the grotto, drill the skylight, walk the ridge, in the three-dimensional space, on the hanging cliff, move the scene, use doubleFeeling the feet, exploring with the eyes, the structure of the hanging temple.
Since the completion of the Hanging Temple, it has been more than 1,500 years. In the millennium, with the river bed silting up and the ground rising, the temple is only 90 meters away from the ground. However, even if it is not the original height, the shock brought us is enough.
In the millennium, many high-rise buildings can be built, and many high-rise buildings collapsed and disappeared into the dust of history. The hanging temple, this ruined dangerous building, experienced landslides, experienced earthquakes, and experienced thousands of years of wind and rain, but still stood still. This is not a historical accident, but a wonder of architecture. The torrent of time spans the temple, showing the ancient Chinese architectural culture in the most three-dimensional and vivid form.
▼Three religions, one is inclusive
In addition to the suspended buildings, the temple’s unique “three religions in one” is also a religious and cultural wonder. Formerly known as “Xuankong Temple”, “Xuan” is from the Taoist teachings, and “empty” comes from the teachings of Buddhism. Although the Hanging Temple is called “Temple”, it is a temple of ancient Chinese Buddhism, Taoism and Confucianism. It is also the only remaining temple in China.
The Hanging Temple is divided into three layers, all of which are wooden frame structures. Buddhism’s Three Buddha Hall, Shakya Hall, Dizang Hall, Guanyin Temple, Jialan Hall, Taoist Taiyi Hall, Three Palaces, Chunyang Hall, Guandi Temple where Buddhism and Taoism coexist, and a room of Buddhism, Confucianism and Taoism The three churches. There are no obvious boundaries and barriers. The three religions of Buddhism, Confucianism and Taoism merge here.
The highest point is the Sanjiao Temple. The so-called three religions, namely, Buddhism, Taoism and Confucianism. In the temple of the Three Religions, sitting in the middle of the Buddha Sakyamuni, on the left is the Confucian ancestor Confucius, and on the right is the Taoist ancestor Laozi. The three ancestors of the ancestors shared a room to educate the world and enlighten life. Buddhism “Pudu sentient beings”, Confucian “harmony”, “benevolent love”, Taoist “no measure of people, ritual first” in this floating temple can be merged and sublimated.
I have heard many stories about Buddhism and Taoism, but for the first time, I saw examples of the integration of the three religions. Although the sparrows are small, they are full of tolerance and tolerance. Among the more than 80 statues in the temple, there are also 尧, 舜, 禹, and Guan Yunchang, who each represent different beliefs, but live here harmoniously.
The Hanging Temple can survive in the wilderness of time for 1,500 years. It is intact in the Jinge Iron Horse of the wars of the frontiers. Perhaps, in addition to the wisdom of architecture, it is also because of its “three religions” Inclusive, encompassing the heroic of the world.
Yungang Grottoes, one of the four major grottoes in China
The last stop of the trip came to the famous Yungang Grottoes. Yungang Grottoes is one of the four major grottoes in China. It is located in the south of Wuzhou Mountain, 16 kilometers west of Datong City, Shanxi Province, on the north bank of the Shili River. The grotto is excavated by mountains, and the east and west stretches for one kilometer. There are 45 existing existing caves and 209 affiliated caves. The engraving area is over 18,000 square meters. The statues are up to 17 meters high and 2 cm minimum. There are more than 1,100 Buddha statues and more than 59000 statues. The Yungang Grottoes have a history of 1,500 years. It is the first time that a Buddhist art has been carved into a royal style by a dynasty. It represents the artistic achievements of China’s superb grottoes in the 5th century. .
Yungang Grottoes was originally named Wuzhou (Zhou) Mountain Cave Temple, and was renamed Yungang Grottoes in the Ming Dynasty. The Northern Wei geographer Shu Daoyuan’s “Shui Jing Zhu” records, “Wuzhou Chuan Shui is still southeast, there are stones on the water side, and the caves are in the caves, and the bhiksuni is also home. The water is turned eastward and the south of the rock is chiseled. Shikai Mountain, due to the rock structure, is really strong and strong, the world is sparse, the mountain hall water temple, the smoke temple, the Lin Yuanjing mirror, the new eyes.
According to the time of excavation, Yungang Grottoes can be divided into early (460-465 AD), middle (AD 471-494), and late (AD 494-525). The grotto statues of different periods are different.
The “Five Caves” is the first five caves to be excavated in Yungang Grottoes. It is named after the excavation under the guidance of Gaochun. The cave is in the shape of a horseshoe, and the dome is modeled after the ancient Indian grass. Each cave has a door and a window. The central Buddha statue is tall and occupyes the main part of the cave. The outer wall is full of thousands of Buddhas. It is very rare in the tradition of engraving.
The image of Yungang Grottoes records the historical track of the development of Buddhist art in India and Central Asia to Chinese Buddhist art, and records the process of the gradual secularization and nationalization of Buddhist statues in China. In the medium term, the Yungang Grottoes have concentrated on the outstanding talents of the country, and with their national strength as a guarantee, they have carved out the more prosperous and beautiful statues of the Yungang Grottoes. The Chinese style of the grottoes has developed rapidly. The caves are square in shape, usually with front and rear chambers. The Chinese palace-style architectural sculptures in the mid-term and the Chinese-style Buddhist altars developed on this basis are widely used in the construction of later generations of grottoes.
In the late period, the Northern Wei moved to Luoyang, and the large-scale excavation activities of the Yungang Grottoes ceased. More than 200 small and medium-sized holes were opened by the pro-Grand and bureaucrats. The shapes were diverse and complex, and the rich Chinese architecture and decorative style were more prominent. It reflects the continuous deepening of Buddhism’s “Chineseization.”
Half-day Yungang, walked into a cave, lingering in a vivid image, once again marveled at the craftsmanship of ancient craftsmen, and expressed the splendour of Shanxi civilization. In the afternoon, returning from the Yungang Grottoes, the body has moved, but the heart is still in the grotto, want to listen carefully, know the story behind the statues.
Written in front